Lev 27:1 - Lev 27:34
Laws About Vows
Lev 27:1 Then Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying,
Lev 27:2 "Speak to the Israelites, and say to them, 'When a man makes a vow according to your proper value of persons to Yahweh,
Lev 27:3 if your proper value is for a male from twenty years of age up to sixty years of age, then your proper value shall be fifty shekels of money according to the sanctuary's shekel.
Lev 27:4 But if it is for a female, then your proper value shall be thirty shekels.
Lev 27:5 And if from five years of age up to twenty years of age, then your proper value shall be twenty shekels for the male and ten shekels for the female.
Lev 27:6 And if from a month of age up to five years of age, then your proper value shall be five shekels of money for the male, and your proper value for the female shall be three shekels of money.
Lev 27:7 And if from sixty years of age and above: if a male, then your proper value shall be fifteen shekels; and for the female, ten shekels.
Lev 27:8 But if he is poorer than your proper value, then he shall present himself before the priest, and the priest shall set a value on him; the priest shall value him according to what the person who made a vow can afford.
Lev 27:9 "'And if it is a domestic animal from which they present an offering for Yahweh, all that he gives from it for Yahweh shall be a holy object.
Lev 27:10 He shall not replace it, nor shall he exchange it, either good with bad or bad with good; and if he indeed exchanges a domestic animal with a domestic animal, then it and its substitution shall be a holy object.
Lev 27:11 But if it is any unclean animal from which they may not present an offering for Yahweh, then he shall present the animal before the priest.
Lev 27:12 And the priest shall set a value on it, either good or bad; as the priest sets your proper value, so it shall be.
Lev 27:13 And if he indeed wants to redeem it, then he shall add a fifth of it onto your proper value.
Here is the law concerning real estates dedicated to the service of God by a singular vow
Lev 27:14 "'And if a man consecrates his house as a holy object for Yahweh, then the priest shall set a value on it, either good or bad; just as the priest sets a value on it, so it shall remain.
Lev 27:15 But if the one who consecrates it wants to redeem his house, then he shall add a fifth of your proper value's money onto it, and it shall be his.
Lev 27:16 "'And if a man consecrates some of his property's fields for Yahweh, then your proper value shall be in accordance with its seed requirements: a homer of barley seed for fifty shekels of money.
Lev 27:17 If he consecrates his field from the Year of Jubilee, it shall stand as your proper value.
Lev 27:18 But if he consecrates his field after the Jubilee, then the priest shall calculate the money for him according to the number of years that are left over until the Year of Jubilee; and it shall be deducted from your proper value.
Lev 27:19 And if he indeed redeems the field that is consecrated, then he shall add a fifth of your proper value's money onto it, and it shall stand for him.
Lev 27:20 And if he does not redeem the field and if he sells the field to another man, it may not be redeemed again,
Lev 27:21 and the field shall be a holy object for Yahweh when it goes out in the Jubilee, like a devoted field; it shall be the priest's property.
Lev 27:22 "'And if he consecrates for Yahweh his acquired field that is not the field of his inherited possession,
Lev 27:23 then the priest shall calculate for him the amount of your proper value until the year of the Jubilee, and he shall give your proper value on that day as a holy object for Yahweh.
Lev 27:24 In the Year of the Jubilee the field shall return to the one who bought it from him, to the one whose property the land is.
Lev 27:25 And every proper value of yours shall be in the sanctuary's shekel—the shekel shall be twenty gerahs.
Lev 27:26 "'However, a man shall not consecrate a firstborn among livestock, which belongs as firstborn to Yahweh; whether an ox or small livestock, it is for Yahweh.
Lev 27:27 And if it is among the unclean animals, then he shall ransom it according to your proper value, and he shall add a fifth of its value onto it; and if it is not redeemed, then it shall be sold according to your proper value.
Lev 27:28 However, anything devoted that a man has devoted to Yahweh from all that he has, from human or animal, or from the field of his property, may not be sold, and it may not be redeemed; anything devoted is a most holy thing for Yahweh.
Lev 27:29 Anyone devoted who is devoted from human beings cannot be ransomed—he shall surely be put to death.
Lev 27:30 "'And any tithe of the land from the land's seed or from the fruit of the trees is for Yahweh; it is a holy object for Yahweh.
Lev 27:31 And if a man indeed redeems from his tithe, he shall add a fifth of its value onto it.
Lev 27:32 As for every tithe of cattle or of the flock, all which crosses under the rod, the tenth shall be a holy object for Yahweh.
Lev 27:33 He shall not inspect between the good and the bad, and he shall not exchange it; but if he indeed exchanges it, then it and its substitution shall be a holy object—it shall not be redeemed.'"
Lev 27:34 These are the commands that Yahweh commanded Moses for the Israelites on Mount Sinai.
Matthew Henry Commentaries
This is part of the law concerning singular vows, extraordinary ones, which though Yahweh did not expressly insist on, yet, if they were consistent with and conformable to the general precepts, He would be well pleased with.
Note, We should not only ask, What must we do, but, What may we do, for the glory and honour of Yahweh? As the liberal devises liberal things (Isa_32:8), so the pious devises pious things, and the enlarged heart would willingly do something extraordinary in the service of so good a Master as Yahweh is. When we receive or expect some singular mercy it is good to honour Yahweh with some singular vow.
I. The case is here put of persons vowed to Yahweh by a singular vow, Lev_27:2. If a man consecrated himself, or a child, to the service of the tabernacle, to be employed there in some inferior office, as sweeping the floor, carrying out ashes, running of errands, or the like, the person so consecrated shall be for the Lord, that is, “Yahweh will graciously accept the good-will.” Thou didst well that it was in thy heart, 2Ch_6:8.
But forasmuch as He had no occasion to use their service about the tabernacle, a whole tribe being appropriated to the use of it, those that were thus vowed were to be redeemed, and the money paid for their redemption was employed for the repair of the sanctuary, or other uses of it, as appears by 2Ki_12:14, where it is called, in the margin, the money of the souls of his estimation.
A book of rates is accordingly provided, by which the priests were to go in their estimation.
1. The rate of the middle-aged, between twenty and threescore, these were valued highest, because most serviceable; a male fifty shekels, and a female thirty, Lev_27:3, Lev_27:4. The females were then less esteemed, but not so in Yahshua; for in Yahshua Messiah there is neither male nor female, Gal_3:28.
Note, Those that are in the prime of their time must look upon themselves as obliged to do more in the service of Yahweh and their generation than can be expected either from minors, that have not yet arrived to their usefulness, or from the aged, that have survived it.
2. The rate of the youth between five years old and twenty was less, because they were then less capable of doing service, Lev_27:5.
3. Infants under five years old were capable of being vowed to Yahweh by their parents, even before they were born, as Samuel was, but not to be presented and redeemed till a month old, that, as one sabbath passed over them before they were circumcised, so one new moon might pass over them before they were estimated; and their valuation was but small, Lev_27:6. Samuel, who was thus vowed to Yahweh, was not redeemed, because he was a Levite, and a particular favourite, and therefore was employed in his childhood in the service of the tabernacle.
4. The aged are valued less than youth, but more than children, Lev_27:7. And the Hebrews observe that the rate of an aged woman is two parts of three to that of an aged man, so that in that age the female came nearest to the value of the male, which occasioned this saying among them, That an old woman in a house is a treasure in a house. Paul sets a great value upon the aged women, when he makes them teachers of good things, Tit_2:3. 5.
The poor shall be valued according to their ability, Lev_27:8. Something they must pay, that they might learn not to be rash in vowing to God, for he hath no pleasure in fools, Ecc_5:4. Yet not more than their ability, but secundum tenementum - according to their possessions, that they might not ruin themselves and their families by their zeal.
Note, Yahweh expects and requires from men according to what they have, and not according to what they have not, Luk_21:4.
II. The case is put of beasts vowed to Yahweh,
1. If it was a clean beast, such as was offered in sacrifice, it must not be redeemed, nor any equivalent given for it: It shall be holy, Lev_27:9, Lev_27:10. After it was vowed, it was not to be put to any common use, nor changed upon second thoughts; but it must be either offered upon the altar, or, if through any blemish it was not meet to be offered, he that vowed it should not take advantage of that, but the priests should have it for their own use (for they were Yahweh's receivers), or it should be sold for the service of the sanctuary.
This teaches caution in making vows and constancy in keeping them when they are made; for it is a snare to a man to devour that which is holy, and after vows to make enquiry, Pro_20:25. And to this that rule of charity seems to allude (2Co_9:7), Every man, according as he purposeth in his heart, so let him give.
2. If it was an unclean beast, it should go to the use of the priest at such a value; but he that vowed it, upon paying that value in money, and adding a fifth part more to it, might redeem it if he pleased, Lev_27:11-13. It was fit that men should smart for their inconstancy. Yahweh has let us know His mind concerning His service, and He is not pleased if we do not know our own. Yahweh expects that those that deal with Him should be at a point, and way what they will stand to.
Here is the law concerning real estates dedicated to the service of God by a singular vow
Here is the law concerning real estates dedicated to the service of Yahweh by a singular vow.
I. Suppose a man, in his zeal for the honour of Yahweh, should sanctify his house to God (Lev_27:14), the house must be valued by the priest, and the money got by the sale of it was to be converted to the use of the sanctuary, which by degrees came to be greatly enriched with dedicated things, 1Ki_15:15.
But, if the owner be inclined to redeem it himself, he must not have it so cheap as another, but must add a fifth part to the price, for he should have considered before he had vowed it, Lev_27:15. To him that was necessitous Yahweh would abate the estimation (Lev_27:8); but to him that was fickle and humoursome, and whose second thoughts inclined more to the world and his secular interest than his first, Yahweh would rise in the price.
Blessed be Yahweh, there is a way of sanctifying our houses to be holy unto Yahweh, without either selling them or buying them. If we and our houses serve Yahweh, if religion rule in them, and we put away iniquity far from them, and have a church in our house, holiness to Yahweh is written upon it, it is His, and He will dwell with us in it.
II. Suppose a man should sanctify some part of his land to Yahweh, giving it to pious uses, then a difference must be made between land that came to the donor by descent and that which came by purchase, and accordingly the case altered.
1. If it was the inheritance of his fathers, here called the field of his possession, which pertained to his family from the first division of Canaan, he might not give it all, no, not to the sanctuary; Yahweh would not admit such a degree of zeal as ruined a man's family. But he might sanctify or dedicate only some part of it, Lev_27:16. And in that case,
(1.) The land was to be valued (as our countrymen commonly compute land) by so many measures' sowing of barley. So much land as would take a homer, or chomer, of barley, which contained ten ephahs, Eze_45:11 (not, as some have here mistaken it, an omer, which was but a tenth part of an ephah, Exo_16:36), was valued at fifty shekels, a moderate price (Lev_27:16), and that if it were sanctified immediately from the year of jubilee, Lev_27:17.
But, if some years after, there was to be a discount accordingly, even of that price, Lev_27:18. And,
(2.) When the value was fixed, the donor might, if he pleased, redeem it for sixty shekels the homer's sowing, which was with the addition of a fifth part: the money then went to the sanctuary, and the land reverted to him that had sanctified it, Lev_27:19.
But if he would not redeem it, and the priest sold it to another, then at the year of jubilee, beyond which the sale could not go, the land came to the priests, and was theirs for ever, Lev_27:20, Lev_27:21.
Note, What is given to the Lord ought not to be given with a power of revocation; what is devoted to the Lord must be his for ever, by a perpetual covenant.
2. If the land was his own purchase, and came not to him from his ancestors, then not the land itself, but the value of it was to be given to the priests for pious uses, Lev_27:22, Lev_27:24.
It was supposed that those who, by the blessing of Yahweh, had grown so rich as to become purchasers would think themselves obliged in gratitude to sanctify some part of their purchase, at least (and here they are not limited, but they might, if they pleased, sanctify the whole), to the service of Yahweh. For we ought to give as Yahweh prospers us, 1Co_16:2. Purchasers are in a special manner bound to be charitable.
Now, forasmuch as purchased lands were by a former law to return at the year of jubilee to the family from which they were purchased, Yahweh would not have that law and the intentions of it defeated by making the lands corban, a gift, Mar_7:11. But it was to be computed how much the land was worth for so many years as were from the vow to the jubilee; for only so long it was his own, and Yahweh hates robbery for burnt-offerings.
We can never acceptably serve Yahweh with that of which we have wronged our neighbour. And so much money he was to give for the present, and keep the land in his own hands till the year of jubilee, when it was to return free of all encumbrances, even that of its being dedicated to him of whom it was bought.
The value of the shekel by which all these estimations were to be made is here ascertained (Lev_27:25); it shall be twenty gerahs, and every gerah was sixteen barley-corns. This was fixed before (Exo_30:13); and, whereas there had been some alterations, it is again fixed in the laws of Ezekiel's visionary temple (Eze_45:12), to denote that the gospel should reduce things to their ancient standard.
I. A caution given that no man should make such a jest of sanctifying things to Yahweh as to sanctify any firstling to Him, for that was His already by the law, Lev_27:26. Though the matter of a general vow be that which we were before obliged to, as of our sacramental covenant, yet a singular vow should be of that which we were not, in such circumstances and proportions, antecedently bound to. The law concerning the firstlings of unclean beasts (Lev_27:27) is the same with that before, Lev_27:11, Lev_27:12.
II. Things or persons devoted are here distinguished from things or persons that were only sanctified.
1. Devoted things were most holy to Yahweh, and could neither revert nor be alienated, Lev_27:28. They were of the same nature with those sacrifices which were called most holy, which none might touch but only the priests themselves.
The difference between these and other sanctified things arose from the different expression of the vow. If a man dedicated any thing to Yahweh , binding himself with a solemn curse never to alienate it to any other purpose, then it was a thing devoted.
2. Devoted persons were to be put to death, Lev_27:29. Not that it was in the power of any parent or master thus to devote a child or a servant to death; but it must be meant of the public enemies of Israel, who, either by the appointment of Yahweh or by the sentence of the congregation, were devoted, as the seven nations with which they must make no league.
The city of Jericho in particular was thus devoted, Jos_6:17. The inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead were put to death for violating the curse pronounced upon those who came not up to Mizpeh, Jdg_21:9, Jdg_21:10. Some think it was for want of being rightly informed of the true intent and meaning of this law that Jephtha sacrificed his daughter as one devoted, who might not be redeemed.
III. A law concerning tithes, which were paid for the service of Yahweh before the law, as appears by Abraham's payment of them, (Gen_14:20), and Jacob's promise of them, Gen_28:22. It is here appointed,
1. That they should pay tithe of all their increase, their corn, trees, and cattle, Lev_27:30, Lev_27:32. Whatsoever productions they had the benefit of Yahweh must be honoured with the tithe of, if it were titheable. Thus they acknowledged Yahweh to be the owner of their land, the giver of its fruits, and themselves to be His tenants, and dependents upon Him.
Thus they gave Him thanks for the plenty they enjoyed, and supplicated His favour in the continuance of it. And we are taught in general to honour Yahweh with our substance (Pro_3:9), and in particular to support and maintain his ministers, and to be ready to communicate to them, Gal_6:6; 1Co_9:11. And how this may be done in a fitter and more equal proportion than that of the tenth, which God himself appointed of old, I cannot see.
2. That which was once marked for tithe should not be altered, no, not for a better (Lev_27:33), for Providence directed the rod that marked it. Yahweh would accept it though it were not the best, and they must not grudge it though it were, for it was what passed under the rod. 3. That it should not be redeemed, unless the owner would give a fifth part more for its ransom, Lev_27:31. If men had the curiosity to prefer what was marked for tithe before any other part of their increase, it was fit that they should pay for their curiosity.
IV. The last verse seems to have reference to this whole book of which it is the conclusion:
These are the commandments which Yahweh commanded Moses, for the children of Israel. Many of these commandments are moral, and of perpetual obligation; others of them, which were ceremonial and peculiar to the Hebrew economy, have notwithstanding a spiritual significancy, and are instructive to us who are furnished with a key to let us into the mysteries contained in them; for unto us, by those institutions, is the gospel preached as well as unto them, Heb_4:2. Upon the whole matter, we may see cause to bless Yahweh that we have not come to mount Sinai, Heb_12:18.
1. That we are not under the dark shadows of the law, but enjoy the clear light of the gospel, which shows us Yahshua the end of the law for righteousness, Rom_10:4. The doctrine of our reconciliation to Yahweh by a Mediator is not clouded with the smoke of burning sacrifices, but cleared by the knowledge of Yahshua and Him crucified.
2. That we are not under the heavy yoke of the law, and the carnal ordinances of it (as the apostle calls them, Heb_9:10), imposed till the time of reformation, a yoke which neither they nor their fathers were able to bear (Act_15:10), but under the sweet and easy institutions of the gospel, which pronounces those the true worshippers that worship the Father in spirit and truth, by Yahshua only, and in His name, who is our priest, temple, altar, sacrifice, purification, and all.
Let us not therefore think that because we are not tied to the ceremonial cleansings, feasts, and oblations, a little care, time, and expense, will serve to honour Yahweh with.
No, but rather have our hearts more enlarge with free-will offerings to his praise, more inflamed with holy love and joy, and more engaged in seriousness of thought and sincerity of intention. Having boldness to enter into the holiest by the blood of Yahshua, let us draw near with a true heart, and full assurance of faith, worshipping Yahweh with so much the more cheerfulness and humble confidence, still saying, Blessed be Yahweh for Yahshua Messiah!