This part of the law is not applicable for our times because Israel is defiled by those who 'claim to be Hebrews (Jews) and are not' and there is no way to determine the exact time for this law's observance, but it will be performed when Yahshua returns as High Priest
Provision for Priests and Levites
Deu 18:1 The priests the Levites, all the tribe of Levi, shall have no portion nor inheritance with Israel. They shall eat the offerings of Yahweh made by fire and his portion.
Deu 18:2 They shall have no inheritance among their brothers. Yahweh is their inheritance, as he has spoken to them.
Deu 18:3 This shall be the priests’ due from the people, from those who offer a sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep, that they shall give to the priest the shoulder, the two cheeks, and the inner parts.
Deu 18:4 The first fruits of your grain, of your new wine, and of your oil, and the first of the fleece of your sheep, you shall give him.
Deu 18:5 For Yahweh your God has chosen him out of all your tribes, to stand to minister in Yahweh’s name, him and his sons forever.
Deu 18:6 If a Levite comes from any of your gates out of all Israel, where he lives as a foreigner, and comes with all the desire of his soul to the place which Yahweh shall choose;
Deu 18:7 then he shall minister in the name of Yahweh his God, as all his brothers the Levites do, who stand there before Yahweh.
Deu 18:8 They shall have like portions to eat, in addition to that which comes from the sale of his family possessions.
Matthew Henry Commentaries
Magistracy (religious court of justice) and ministry are two divine institutions of admirable use for the support and advancement of the kingdom of Yahweh among men. Laws concerning the former we had in the close of the foregoing chapter, directions are in this given concerning the latter. Land-marks are here set between the estates of the priests (minister) and those of the people.
I. Care is taken that the priests (minister) entangle not themselves with the affairs of this life, nor enrich themselves with the wealth of this world; they have better things to mind. They shall have no part nor inheritance with Israel, that is, no share either in the spoils taken in war or in the land that was to be divided by lot, Deu_18:1.
Their warfare and husbandry are both spiritual, and enough to fill their hands both with work and profit and to content them. Yahweh is their inheritance, Deu_18:2.
Note, Those that have Yahweh for their inheritance, according to the new covenant, should not be greedy of great things in the world, neither gripe what they have nor grasp at more, but look upon all present things with the indifference which becomes those that believe Yahweh to be all-sufficient.
II. Care is likewise taken that they want not any of the comforts and conveniences of this life. Though Yahweh, who is a Spirit, is their inheritance, it does not therefore follow that they must live upon the air; no,
1. The people must provide for them. They must have their due from the people, Deu_18:3. Their maintenance must not depend upon the generosity of the people, but they must be by law entitled to it.
He that is taught in the 'word' ought in justice to communicate to him that teaches him; and he that has the benefit of solemn religious assemblies ought to contribute to the comfortable support of those that preside in such assemblies.
(1.) The priests (minister) who in their courses served at the altar had their share of the sacrifices, namely, the peace-offerings, that were brought while they were in waiting: besides the breast and shoulder, which were appointed them before (Lev_7:32-34), the cheeks and maw are here ordered to be given them; so far was the law from diminishing what was already granted that it gave them an augmentation
(2.) The first-fruits which arose within such a precinct were brought in, as it should seem, to the priests that resided among them, for their maintenance in the country; the first of their corn and wine for food, and the first of their fleece for clothing (Deu_18:4); for the priests (minister) who were employed to teach others ought themselves to learn, having food and raiment, to be therewith content.
The first-fruits were devoted to Yahweh, and He constituted the priests (minister) His receivers; and if Yahweh reckons what is, in general, given to the poor, lent to him, to be repaid with interest, much more what is, in particular, given to the poor, lent to him, to be repaid with interest, much more what is, in particular, given to poor ministers.
There is a good reason given for this constant charge upon their estates (Deu_18:5), because the Levites were chosen of Yahweh, and His choice must be owned and countenanced, and those honoured by us whom He honours; and because they stood to minister, and ought to be recompensed for their attendance and labour, especially since it was in the name of Yahweh, by His warrant, in His service, and for His praise, and this charge entailed upon their seed for ever; those who were thus engaged and thus employed ought to have all due encouragement given them, as some of the most needful useful members of their commonwealth.
2. The priests (minister) must not themselves stand in one another's light. If a priest (minister) that by the law was obliged to serve at the altar only in his turn, and was paid for that, should, out of his great affection to the sanctuary, devote himself to a constant attendance there, and quit the ease and pleasure of the city in which he had his lot for the satisfaction of serving the altar, the priests (minister) whose turn it was to attend must admit him both to join in the work and to share in the wages, and not grudge him either the honour of the one or the profit of the other, though it might seem to break in upon them, Deu_18:6-8.
Note, A hearty pious zeal to serve Yahweh and His church, though it may a little encroach upon a settled order, and there may be somewhat in it that looks irregular, yet ought to be gratified and not discouraged. He that appears to have a hearty affection to the sanctuary, and loves dearly to be employed in the service of it, in Yahweh's name let him minister; he shall be as welcome to Yahweh as the Levites whose course it was to minister, and should be so to them.
The settling of the courses was intended rather to secure those to the work that were not willing to do so much than to exclude any that were willing to do more. And he that thus serves as a volunteer shall have as good pay as the pressed men, besides that which comes of the sale of his patrimony.
The church of Yahweh [Rome] obliges those who leave their estates to go into a monastery to bring the produce of their estates with them into the common stock of the monastery, for gain is their righteousness; but here it is ordered that the pious devotee should reserve to himself the produce of his patrimony, for religion and the ministry were never appointed of Yahweh however they have been abused by men, to serve a secular interest.